Shopping Tips For Modern Furniture Toronto

Before you purchase Modern Furniture Toronto, there are some key features you should seek out while browsing stores. You’ll find various types of contemporary furniture in Toronto, from Italian bedroom furniture to modern sofas and chairs. Make quality a priority because you’ll likely keep your furniture for many years. Low quality furniture will end up costing you more in the long haul, but paying a little more up front for good craftsmanship will bring long-term enjoyment and satisfaction.

Budgeting and Furniture Needs
First, consider what type of furniture is needed and how you’d like to accessorize each room. Determine a budget for your purchase so you can speak with a sales associate about Bedroom Furniture Toronto within your price range. This doesn’t mean you can’t look for great bargains, but the sales associate will have an idea of what you’re willing to spend on good quality items.

For limited space in the living area, you might consider one sofa and a chair, and buy a small decorative table to place between them. Or, if you have a large space to fill, there are matching sets with a sofa, chair, loveseat and several tables including a center coffee table. If you live in a small apartment or home with only one or two bedrooms, consider adding a sofa bed so you’ll have extra sleeping space for overnight guests. There are also modern storage sofa beds that feature storage space underneath the mattress. This space is easy to access by simply lifting the mattress, so you can easily store shoes, clothing, photo albums, or whatever else out of sight.

Modern Furniture Toronto Styles and Pricing
Modern living room furniture in Toronto comes in various styles, shapes and colors to match any decor. You can choose from leather or fabric, sectional sofas, regular sofas, recliners, contemporary chairs and ottomans. Prices range from $900 to $3,000 depending on the style, brand and type of upholstery.

Modern bedroom furniture ranges from a simple bed with mattress to five-piece sets including dressers, night tables, etc. Platform beds seem to be the going style these days, which add a clean, comfortable look to any modern bedroom decor. These don’t require a box spring because the mattress rests directly on the platform. Modern beds are noted for their straight lines with slightly curved or completely upright headboards that fit neatly against the wall. They can be built of wood or a lacquer finish…whatever your preference. If you need extra storage, there are also beds with storage drawers tucked away neatly near the floor within the platform. For a really luxurious look and feel, shop for Italian bedroom furniture by Rossetto or other high quality brands.
When shopping for modern dining room furniture in Toronto, notice the various styles and table sizes. There are round, oval or rectangular dining tables with decorative oval-backed or other styles of chairs. Modern dining room tables come in all sizes, from the large family dining table that sits six people to the small breakfast table for two or four. Choose from glass, wood or lacquer finish and various colors to match your dining room decor.
Accessorize your furniture with modern rugs, small tables, contemporary lamps and wall paintings. These products are usually available at Coffee Tables Toronto stores as well. Don’t be afraid to ask for a bargain deal on these items when including them in your furniture purchase. Most furniture stores can work with you on the total pricing, similar to a car dealership or other places where high-dollar purchases are made.

If you’d like to get an idea of the styles of contemporary furniture that are available today, check out websites of local Modern Sofas stores in Toronto. View various brands and styles of Italian furniture in Toronto, modern sofas, dining sets, modern bedroom furniture and more from the comfort of your own home. Browsing modern furniture online will give you an advantage when you do visit a Toronto furniture store, so get started today!

How To Make Old Furniture Look Brand New

Old, beat up furniture is often thrown away and replaced years before it is truly unusable. This type of furniture is great for anyone looking to furnish a house or apartment on a budget. People replace furniture for a wide variety of reasons, and, in many cases, old furniture can be quite valuable. Antique furniture fits this model very well. The keys to transforming old home furnishings into new are preparation, creativity and hard work. With these three tools just about any piece of furniture can be made to look brand new.

Adequate preparation is important when starting any refurbishing process. For example, you should know which type of wood you are working with. Whether you are working with wood or metal, it is instrumental to the process that you closely investigate your furniture in search of any nicks or scratches in the piece. You should also look for stains, burns and other blemishes. It is also essential to know what kind of paint and finishing was used on the product. You should remove any wax that may exist on the piece of furniture. If you sand down the paint when it has a layer of wax over it, you will drive the wax deeper into the wood. Wax will also prevent new paint from taking hold. Check the surface closely for any laminate; this can also make the application of new paint difficult. Cleaning the item is important prior to, and often after stripping the paint. When all of these external layers are removed you will need to work on removing the paint. This can be done either with a chemical stripping agent, or with fine grain sandpaper. Refrain from using heavy grain papers, they will scratch the wood. It is also important to not use sanding-on lead based paint, as lead paint chips can be harmful. Similar actions are taken on metal furniture. The main difference is that any rust will need to be removed. When you have successfully removed the old coat of paint and prepared it for the new coat, creativity comes into play.

There are a wide range of options for painting wood or metal furniture. If you want an old, well worn look, you can buy paints that will actually peel away slightly on purpose. This effect works especially well when one paints a base coat in one color and a second coat in a complementary shade. When the second coat peels slightly it will reveal the base coat, and the two layers will complement one another giving your piece a stunning appearance. You can also find paints that will crackle and perform other similar effects to achieve this goal. Another option for creativity is using stencils. By combining stencil use, multiple coats and creative sanding of the wood, one can turn an old ratty television stand or garden bench into a work of art. It is important to remember in all of this that you are working with paint, not something permanent. If you make any mistakes you can always re-sand the patch you made a mistake on. The flexibility allowed with paint makes the potential for experimentation high, so take advantage of that freedom.

If you want to stain the furniture the process is a little more complicated. The main difference between staining and painting is that staining requires a little bit of extra care. It is easier to make mistakes, and there are a few fine details for staining that do not apply to painting. Be sure to discuss your options with somebody at a hardware store or paint supplier before you start. This will give you a clear idea of what you are getting into and what will work best with the furniture that you have.

Hard work is necessary to successfully refurbish an old piece of furniture. The process of refinishing furniture sounds simple on paper, and it is something that anybody can do. However, doing it well takes a great deal of work. For the most part, hand sanding will work the best. Small electric sanders are functional, but throughout your project there will likely need to be a number of small adjustments made in which an electric sander would be ineffective. Be ready to employ some elbow grease to make sanding work. A few of the ingredients of a successful project are research, creativity and hard work. A few other ways to ensure success is finding out the correct type of wood used, the proper kind of wood putty to fill scratches and cracks and the correct primer are all necessary for a successful project. If you put the effort into your project then the preparation and creativity will often take care of itself. Do all of these things, and in the end you will have a piece of furniture that looks brand new.

Know More About Kubu Grey Wicker Furniture

More and souls are getting into furniture stores – whether online or brick and mortar – having already made up their minds that they are particularly looking for wicker article of furniture. This clarity of determination could be, in some instances, due of an article they read somewhere in a home improvement magazine or it could be because of the stylish they discovered in a friend’s (or neighbor’s) caning article of furniture set when they went calling.

Whatever the inspiration behind their going shopping for caning furniture, however, some mortals are not aware of what their alternatives are in terms of caning article of furniture, as in, what varieties caning article of furniture gets in, what the characteristics of those varieties are and such other elements that would come in handy in making a perfect choice.

In answer to this need for information on wicker article of furniture forms, we examine here one variety of caning article of furniture called Kubu grey.Almost every serious caning article of furniture distributor is likely to have Kubu grey in stock, seeing that this is one of the leading varieties of wicker furniture. Fundamentally, Kubu grey wicker furniture like all wicker furniture is prepared from rattan skin. But unlike in other forms of wicker article of furniture, the rattan cane skin used in Kubu grey wicker article of furniture is first wet in clay for two to three days – and it is this clay drenching that leads in the refined grey color which Kubu grey gets with.

The procedure of drenching rattan cane skin in clay which results in Kubu grey caning furniture helps a number of purposes. As referred, it is this process which results in the exquisite grey color – so beautiful that many individuals find no need to further paint the article of furniture so produced. Indeed, having assembled the rattan skin so soaked in clay into parts of article of furniture like chairs and tables, what some people prefer done to it is to have it varnished to a bright finish without toting up any coat of paint.

This is of course an chance to save on cash that would have been exhausted on pigment – but even souls for whom money is not an subject, adding another coat of paint on the grey color that gets as a effect of the mud soak process used in making Kubu grey caning furniture would be seen as intrusive with something which is already beautiful. Of course, as a result of having been kept in the very high moisture condition during the clay soak process used in the fabrication of Kubu grey article of furniture, the furniture does tend to get stronger (as this is some sort of tough seasoning) which could translate into enduringness for the end user of the furniture item.

Of course, like all caning furniture, the way the parts of rattan cane skin that make up Kubu grey are complex in the essential item also results in that elegant normal look which is characteristic of caning furniture – and which some people concede to finding quite irresistible.
Kubu grey wicker article of furniture is ideal for individual who requires to set a ‘normal’ mood in their living room, dining room, patio or wherever they put the kubu grey wicker article of furniture items.

Simple And Timeless Ideas To Arrange Furniture

Arranging furniture at home is never an easy task. You have to keep a number of things in mind before you place your beautiful furniture in each room. This article will give simple strategies to place the furniture appropriately in the rooms of your house. With a little planning and creativity, you can make your house look well decorated.

Whenever you want to arrange furniture at home, you must consider the main function of the room in question. This is important as you have to place the right piece in the right room. For instance, the bed has to be the focus of attention among bedroom furniture and sofas need to take the center stage in the living rooms. Once you have decided upon the utility of each room, you can shift the most important furniture in that room. That particular piece will now become the main point of the room, around which the rest of the furniture and decorations can be done.

If you have large furniture for a room, you have to make the arrangement such as to not make the room look too full. There should be room for people to walk around comfortably. Moreover, you must consider the shape of the room while placing the furniture. If you are arranging your bedroom and have a large bed as well as dressing table to accommodate, you must do away with other accessories if the room looks too crowded. Similarly, home office must have a good table as the focal point and avoid too many other decorative pieces as they might hamper the work environment.

Any room arrangement must be comfortable for you as well as the guests. You have to consider the aspect of cleaning the rooms as very heavy furniture might make vacuuming tough. Also, consider the frequency of use of the room. If you use your dining room very frequently, you should make it informal and free of unnecessary clutter. If you use a particular room for socializing on special occasions, you can make it look attractive with high end pieces and a formal look.

Another rule of thumb is to keep the scale of furniture in any room uniform. A small stool in a large den with huge recliners and tables will look very odd. Thus, you must keep the sizing of the furniture in mind while purchasing them from the furniture store. You must choose practical secondary furniture for every room. If you like reading before sleeping, you can buy a side table to keep the table lamp and place it by your bed. Again, if you entertain guests in your living room, you can buy a useful side table and arrange it at the end of the sofa.

Next, you can add other accessories like flowers, pictures, paintings and other decorative items to every room. This can add a personal touch to the rooms and also help you show off your creativity. Furniture itself can become a decorative piece if you choose smartly. A beautifully carved coffee table or smart leather recliners immediately add glamour to the room. So, let your personality shine through your house decoration and enjoy the chance to get creative with furniture arrangement at home.

The Secret Art Of Using Colour To Enhance Your Bathroom

The Secret Art of Using Colour to Enhance your Bathroom
Throughout history, people have known about and taken advantage of the power of colour. Colour can influence behaviour, trigger emotional responses and there are those that believe colour has the power to heal. Its undeniable that colour has had an enormous influence on the development of humanity.


The earliest civilizations used colour very much as we do today. Roman Emperors wore the Toga Picta (a royal purple toga with gold embroidery) as a means to indicate their status, Celtic tribes used the woad plant to produce a deep blue dye which they used all over their bodies before going into battle and most amazingly Indian tailors are recorded as making use of many different colours of dye to produce printed cotton as early as 330 B.C.


With colour being so vitally important to our everyday lives, its only natural that we want our houses to be coloured just the way we like. You may be surprised to know that over their lifetime the average person will spend more than 2 years in the bathroom, so its only natural that we should spend an appropriate amount of time on making sure that the colours we use to decorate it will compliment how we want our bathroom to look and feel.


The Temperature of Colour
Everyone knows about the association of colours with emotions, such as Red for passion, Blue for tranquility and Green for peace, but were you also aware that colours have an associated temperature?

Reds, Oranges and Yellows, the colours of the burning sun, are warm.

Blues, Greens and Purples, the colours of the grass, sea and sky, are cool.

Blacks, Browns, Greys, Silvers and Whites, the colours of the soil, are neutral.
Warm colours make a room appear smaller and cosier & objects appear larger and heavier. Time appears to pass more quickly in warm spaces and warm colours & earthy tones encourage and maintain body warmth. Warm colours are a great way to re-energize the body if your job involves a lot of physical activity.


Cool colours make a room appear larger and more spacious & objects appear smaller and lighter. Time appears to pass more slowly in cool spaces. Cool colours are more conducive to mental activities and dampen sound effects. Cool colours are effective to encourage the body and mind to relax and unwind, and are well suited to those with jobs where intense concentration is required for long periods of time.


Neutral colours as the name suggests are not considered especially warm or cool. Neutral colours depend largely on the colours around them and tend to reflect the attributes of those colours rather than possessing their own. Neutral colours are seen as quiet and calming, and ideal for those with extremely stressful occupations!


Natural Expectations
We may be several thousand years away from those who lived outdoors all their lives and never knew a town or city, but the human brain still remains conditioned after all this time to expect the darkest colours at our feet, mid-range colours at eye level and the lightest colours high above us.


Some people like to take advantage of this ancestral recall in their bathrooms to give the impression of bathing in the great outdoors, using earthy tones of ceramic floor tiles, painting the lower halves of the walls green and the upper halves and ceiling different shades of blue. To complete the experience, plants are often placed around the room and some people even go so far as to have soothing music playing in the background.


Make Colour Work for You
However, regardless of your choice in bathroom colours, it is strongly recommended that you use at least three but no more than six separate colours to decorate. Of these one should be the lightest, another should be designated as the accent and the other colours should be somewhere in between the two. The accent colour should be either the brightest or darkest of all the chosen colours, and used in at least three different positions within the room.

The majority of the bathroom should be decorated in the lightest colour. Medium colours should be used in secondary areas such as shower curtains, window blinds and mirror frames, leaving the accent colour to be used on items like towels, rugs, soap dishes and other small but important bathroom accessories.


For a small bathroom a popular alternative is to tile three walls in white or very light colours and have the fourth wall painted in a dramatic and contrasting colour. The white tiles will pick up hues of this colour and project them around giving the illusion of depth and making the whole room seem larger and less plain.


Applying Emphasis
If youre really proud of a certain feature of your bathroom and want the eye to be drawn naturally to it, here are some tricks you can use to this effect:
To emphasise the floor, colour it darker than either the walls or the ceiling.
A tray ceiling is an attractive way to add depth and break up an ordinary flat ceiling line, and can be inverted or recessed. Pick one colour and use a darker shade of it on the tray and a lighter shade on the rest of the ceiling. This will draw the eye naturally upwards.


Add a decorative border along the skirting boards or along the upper sides of the walls to focus attention in those directions.


Remember to make sure you buy and use special bathroom paint, designed with a high tolerance for humidity. The more glossy the paint, the more light will reflect off the surface of your walls, and the brighter and more cheerful your bathroom will appear!
Say Goodbye to Clutter!


Theres nothing worse than feeling uneasy in your own bathroom. You could have the most relaxing colours in the world but if your bathroom is or feels cluttered then the effect youre aiming for will be lost. However, there are a number of simple and inexpensive steps you can take to deal with this problem.


Painting bathroom furniture white makes it seem to take up less space and thus a small room appears larger than it actually is. Painting furniture in dark colours will naturally have the opposite effect, and is an possibility where you have a large bathroom with plenty of light.

Adding extra lighting can open up the look of your bathroom. Wall sconces are highly affordable and will add warmth and depth to your room. If youre looking to spend a little more on your bathroom, you can fit florescent tube lights, have larger windows installed or even add a skylight!

Last but not least an increasingly popular step taken by many designers is to install either one large or multiple small mirrors above the bathroom sink. Mirrors reflect the light in the room, pick up the subtle shades, tones and patterns and project them around the entire room, making it appear larger and more colourful. For even more depth, install two full-length dress mirrors on opposite walls facing each other. Youll be amazed at the results!


Taking the Final Step
While adding colour to a room is the cheapest and easiest way to dramatically change its appearance, reactions to colour are personal to each individual. What relaxes one person might put anothers nerves on edge. Ultimately, it all comes down to a combination of past experiences, emotional associations and personal preference. If it feels right, then follow your gut instinct and go for it!

Fitted Bathroom Furniture

Rather than just being filled with a collection of individual items, fitted furniture bathrooms feature furniture which is integrated into the bathroom’s design. Having a bathroom with fitted furniture allows for far more space by using it more effectively. You can fit sinks onto cabinets, allowing for storage space, mirrors and such, or you can install a back to wall toilet which hides the cistern in another storage space. They provide a more traditional bathroom look, but lose nothing in sense of their practicality.

Style

If your bathroom furniture is going to flow together the way it should in an ideal fitted furniture bathroom, each individual item should have the same style. Unless you are attempting a very daring stylistic statement, you should avoid colour contrasts between individual items of furniture. The toilet should ideally be the say colour as the sink, and perhaps even the same colour as the tiles or cabinets. Light colours are better than darker ones for creating a feeling of spaciousness, and unless your bathroom has plenty of floor space already, you should be opting for spaciousness as much as possible.

Fitting

As the individual items need to be fitted perfectly together, you should not attempt to install fitted furniture yourself unless you have a good understanding of the process. If you plan to fit a sink to a cabinet, there are a great many aspects for you to consider before you start, and should you neglect even one of these aspects, you could end up with a crudely fitted sink which affects the entire feel of your bathroom. Professional installation will ensure the fullest sense of symmetry and style that your fitted furniture bathroom is capable of.

Cost

Depending on the current state of your bathroom, the cost of installing a fitted furniture bathroom can vary. Installation alone can cost a large amount, not to mention the cost of the individual items of furniture. You can save a lot of money if you know how to install items properly yourself, but you should only attempt this if you feel confident that you are capable of doing so. Buying a set of items is often slightly cheaper than buying different individual items, and ensures a sense of continuity in style and colour. Whatever the cost, investing in fitted bathroom furniture is one of the most effective ways of maximising the space of your bathroom.

How a Bathroom Remodeling Contractor Can Save Time and Money

Many would-be amateur bathroom remodelers find out the hard way that this can be one of the most challenging types of home renovations. When dealing with a washroom or bathroom, not only does the plumbing need to be addressed, but so does wiring, fixtures and flooring come into play. This is especially true if the room has sustained water damage, has outdated plumbing or even worse, outdated wiring. Few amateur renovators are up to this type of challenge, which is why so many people choose to hire a bathroom remodeling contractor.

The bathroom is one of the most important areas of the home. Not only is it the one room that gets used daily by everyone who lives there, but it is also one of the rooms that adds the most equity value to a property as well. When these factors are taken into account, it really does illuminate the need for a properly updated and functional powder room. Unfortunately, the external appearance of a room may look fantastic, but it can still have wretched wiring or plumbing and few homeowners are aware of this fact until a renovation project has been started.

Before adding a dent into a home department store credit card and launching on an ambitious solo project to completely renovate a bathroom, first sit down and decide what the finished results need to be. Next, decide the actual amount of materials needed, the hours it will take to complete the job and the potential setbacks that might occur during renovation. This will give a clearer idea as to the level of commitment involved in a remodeling project of this nature. This also gives a reason to hire a bathroom remodeling contractor; they will be the ones to deal with all of these aspects and will have the tools, knowledge and contacts to get the job done.

If you’re looking to save a few bucks on your next home renovations project and think it costs too much to hire a bathroom remodeling contractor, first look into the option of getting free estimates from local contractors in the area. This will help place an average cost of the materials, labor and construction when done professionally. Next, add up your personal potential costs and labor if you do the renovating yourself and compare the two. Once the saved time and labor is factored in, it may be far more affordable than initially thought to get professional services to speed up a renovation project.

Trench Drain Systems For Stylish Bathrooms

You may have seen the latest bathroom trends in smart interior design magazines. Wet room showers are hot right now, because they open up the visual appearance of the bathroom, making it look more spacious, attractive and modern. So are ADA-accessible showers, which are not only user friendly but also add to the resale value of your home should you decide to sell it in the future. The style of your bathroom in based on what goes into the foundation, and one of the key aspects of any bathroom is how the drainage of water will occur. Many homeowners, after looking at the options, pick a linear drain for their shower because it not only looks great, but it works well in this heavy-use area of the home.

A linear drain refers to its shape, which is a long and thin rectangle. This type of trench shower drain is in sharp contrast to the traditional round drain that you see in the center of many shower stalls. Whereas you are pretty much stuck with a center-placed drain if you use a round drain in your shower, those limitations are removed with the shower trough drain. While a round drain also requires a round slope to be created in the floor of the shower in order to get the water to the drain, you only need a single slope to make a trench shower drain function properly. Because there is less time involved by your construction crew to create one slope rather than multiple ones for a round drain in the shower floor, an additional benefit from the trench shower drain is that it costs less to install.

Another aesthetic benefit that comes from using trench drain systems is that you have more choice in the type of tiles or stones that you use in the shower stall. Because of the single slope in the floor, you can use larger pieces of tile or stone with a trench shower drain than you can with a round one.

You can also use a linear drain in a tub to shower conversion. A tub to shower conversion can visually expand your bathroom space if you place the shower trough drain right at the doorway to the shower. This placement of the shower trough drain will keep the water in the shower stall without an additional lip or edge, and thus you can run long glass doors for your shower all the way to the floor.

The best way to see how trench drain systems can be used to create a high-end bathroom look is to visit a online trench drain provider.

The Complete Renovations of the Bathroom in Maryland

It can be seen that most of the bathrooms in Maryland are completely renovated and they are extremely beautiful to look at. The installation mechanisms are done with some of the modern techniques and they are extremely useful as far as the modern innovations are concerned. The home improvement companies give special importance to the bathroom renovations. Introduction The bathroom renovation MD companies are specialized in the bathroom renovation materials and they can give the bathrooms a superior look. The bathroom vanity installations are another work which is done by the technicians in Maryland and it can be said that most of the home improvements companies in Maryland are specialized in bathroom vanity installations. Some of the materials which help in the renovation of the bathroom are as follows: The Showers and tubs used are the latest ones with some of the latest decorations available. Most of the modern showers are really marvelous to look at. The sinks used which are designed with the variety of materials used and most of the latest sinks can be seen in the present bathrooms of Maryland. The Hair dryer installation can also be seen in some of the modern day bathroom and some of the mostly used sinks are the porcelain sinks. The vanity installations in the bathroom are available in a variety which includes single vanity, double vanity and some of the other bath vanity ideas. Thus, it can be seen that most of the residents in Maryland are extremely passionate to renovate their bathrooms and they have been successful in most of their plans with some of the experienced technicians. The installation procedures of the materials in the bathroom have been so smooth that the clients are heavily impressed with the working culture of the workers. Some of the latest tips which are followed in order to have the best bathroom are as follows: The durable flooring should be selected in order to give the bathroom a new look. Some of the durable tiles are the marble, stone and ceramic tiles. Some of the floors used are the well sealed hardwood floors. A stylish mirror should be hanged in the bathroom which can even increase the glow of the bathrooms. There should be an interior depth in the cabinet and in most of the bathrooms it can be seen that people use pedestal sink with graceful lines. Before purchasing a bathtub it should be thoroughly examined by the customers. Hence, it can be said that most of the bathrooms are renovated such that the house owners can have a pleasant time in the bathrooms and they can really have a good bath. Thus a perfect bathroom can be obtained with some of the remodeling processes which are followed by most of the home improvement companies.

The author is completely aware of the bathroom renovation MD companies and the bathroom vanity installations are the major contributions of the workers. The Author has explained properly all the renovation mechanisms of the bathroom which are essential for any of the customers. Hence, along with the kitchen it is the bathroom which give a perfect interior decoration.

Kitchen Exhaust Fans

NFPA 96 Ventilation Standard provides the minimum fire safety requirements related to the design, installation, operation, inspection, and maintenance of all public and private cooking operations except for single family residential usage. The requirements include, but are not limited to, all manner of cooking equipment, exhaust hoods, grease removal devices, exhaust ductwork, exhaust fans, dampers, fire extinguishing equipment and all other components or systems that are involved in the capture, containment and control of grease-laden cooking residue. The provisions of this standard are considered necessary to provide a reasonable level of protection from loss of life and property from fire and explosion. This standard is intended to be applied as a whole.

Standard for Ventilation Control and Fire Protection of Commercial Cooking Operations not provide safe design and operation if parts of it are not enforced or are arbitrarily deleted in any applications. The authority having jurisdiction shall determine compliance with this standard an d authorize any deviations from it in all applications.

Cooking equipment that produces smoke or greaseladen vapors shall be equipped with an exhaust system that complies with all the equipment and performance requirements of this standard. All such equipment and performance also needs to be maintained per the requirements of this standard during all periods of operation. Specifically, the cooking equipment, hoods, ducts, fans, fire suppression systems and special grease collection or energy control equipment are to be kept in good working condition.

Airflows throughout all components of the system must be maintained at intervals necessary to keep the operating conditions of the equipment at the proper levels. All interior surfaces of the exhaust system shall be reasonably accessible for cleaning and inspection purposes. Except where enclosures are required, hoods, grease removal devices, exhaust fans, and ducts shall have a clearance of at least 18 inches to combustible material, 3 inches to limited combustible material and 0 inches to non-combustible material. (See Fig. 1a – 1e.) This is only a guideline and there are several exceptions to these.

Ultimately, the authority having jurisdiction (AHJ) has the final say in the acceptance or rejection of the installation. In the event of a fire within the exhaust system, the system must be inspected by qualified personnel and approved by the AHJ to determine whether the system is structurally sound, capable of maintaining their fire protection function, and suitable for continued operation. Clearances can be reduced by the installation of field applied or factory built grease duct enclosures. These must demonstrate that they provide sufficient mechanical and structural integrity, resiliency and stability when subjected to expected building environmental conditions, duct movement under general operating, and fire conditions. A drawing of the exhaust system installation along with a copy of operating instructions for subassemblies and components used in the exhaust system, including electrical schematics, shall be available on the premises.

Upblast fans with the motors surrounded by the airstream shall be hinged, supplied with a flexible weatherproof electrical cable and a hold open retainer for servicing and cleaning, and be listed for this use. Inline fans shall have the motor located outside of the airstream and have the belts and pulleys protected from the airstream by a greasetight housing. The fan must be securely bolted to the flanges of the exhaust duct using stainless steel bolts, nuts, lock washers and gasketing rated for 1500o F. Flexible connectors are not be used. If the design or positioning of the fan allows grease to be trapped, a grease drain directed to an accessible grease receptacle, not exceeding 1 gal, must be supplied.

Inline fans shall be located in an easily accessible area to allow for service and removal. Utility set exhaust fans, if installed at the rooftop termination point, shall meet the requirements for rooftop termination installations. If the fan is installed in a building, it shall be accessible for service and removal. The fan must be connected with flanges to the exhaust duct and securely bolted. Fans shall have a drain directed to a grease receptacle.

The air velocity through a duct may not be less than 1500 feet per minute. Exhaust air volumes for hoods must be of a sufficient level to provide for the capture and removal of the grease-laden cooking vapors. The exhaust system in a hood must continue to operate after the extinguishing system has been activated unless a fan shutdown is required by a listed component in the ventilation system or by the design of the extinguishing system. It shall not be required to restart the hood exhaust fan when the extinguishing system is activated if the exhaust fan and all cooking equipment served by the fan had previously been shut down. Master kitchen exhaust ducts that serve multiple tenants shall include provisions to bleed air from the outdoors or adjacent spaces into the master exhaust duct in order to maintain the minimum air velocity required in the master duct. This bleed air duct shall connect to the top or side of the master exhaust duct and have a fire damper at least 12 inches from the exhaust duct connection. The damper must be adjustable in order to regulate the volume of air into the master duct. A bleed air duct shall not be used for the exhaust of greaseladen vapors. Unused tenant exhaust connections into the master exhaust duct that are not being used as bleed air connections are to be disconnected and sealed.